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Internet Questions

What is a protocol?A protocol is a set of rules and guidelines for communicating dataWhat is an Internet Protocol (IP) address?An IP address, or simply an "IP," is a unique address that identifies a device on the Internet or a local network. It allows a system to be recognized by other systems connected via the Internet protocol. How is it organized hierarchically?Most Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) routing is based on a two-level hierarchical routing in which an IP address is divided into a network portion and a host portion. Gateways use only the network portion until an IP data gram reaches a gateway that can deliver it directly.How many bits are in an IPv4 address?32How many IPv4 addresses does that mean there are?  4,294,967,296 IPv4 addressesWhat is the difference between IPv6 and IPv4.  IPv6 addresses are 128-bit IP address written in hexadecimal and separated by colonsWhy do we need IPv6?Provides a much larger address spaceWhat is an IP pack…
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It's All Just Bits

1. I think that this will continue to be a truth because although the computer sees everything as just being 'bits', humans interpret the messages as being different things. This portion of the article seems to argue that the law needs to catch up with how technology works, and treat everything equally, because every technological transfer of information is made up of bits. I don't think that this will be the case in the future because people interpret some forms of information as more private than others. The laws should reflect what is generally thought about privacy and not what a message is in relation to computers.

2. This relates to my life as a student because if the laws are changed and privacy laws are universal it could affect how we use the internet every day. If some laws restrict access to certain messaging methods it could limit our communication. This would affect how our phones operate as well as computers in general.

Breakthrough Technologies

The only innovations from this list that I knew about before reading the article were the artificial embryos, and the 'AI for everybody'. I think that the artificial embryos would impact society the most. This could let us increase the population exponentially without needing a lot of humans. If we run into a population crisis one day this could save us. The innovation that affects the economy the most is the 3-D printing with metal. This could revolutionize manufacturing as well as inventing things. If you wanted to make a prototype you could use metal to make it functional instead of a plastic model.

The personal AI affects me personally the most because it is everywhere. I have used Siri and Alexa before, and when I actually need to use them they are very helpful. Some people worry about AI becoming too smart, but the day when they are too smart is the day when the whole world is going to rely on computers.


Internet​ ​is​ ​for​ ​everyone​ ​-​ ​but​ ​it​ ​won't​ ​be​ ​if​ ​Governments restrict access to it, so we must dedicate ourselves to keeping the network unrestricted, unfettered and unregulated. We must have the freedom to speak and the freedom to hear.

This challenge is important to me because if the government restricted access to the internet then our lives would change drastically. Some countries restrict access to all or certain parts of the internet, like North Korea. In North Korea, the government controls the internet, and what information is available to the public. If the government restricted the internet in the United States, then we would no longer have a democracy; it would turn into totalitarianism. If we weren't allowed to use the internet, our knowledge of world affairs and everything that is occurring on a global scale would be very limited, and we would only know what the government would want us to know.

The internet is a massive online forum - somewhere w…

Marconi Center Recap

The thing I found most interesting about the Chatham Marconi Maritime Center was that Marconi invented a tool there that was deemed so powerful that the government felt the need to take it over during the war. It was really cool to learn that with limited power and resources, Marconi was able to contact England from all the way across the Atlantic on Cape Cod. Marconi was very ahead of his time and without him we most likely wouldn't have all of the ways to communicate with one another that we have now.
My favorite exhibit was the Enigma simulator. I knew the basics of how the Enigma worked, but I had never considered that the cipher wheel turned with each keystroke so the combinations were different each time. It was pretty interesting to be able to reenact it yourself, and to be able to figure out the password which would allow you to translate the code. My other favorite exhibit was the drone simulator. I have never flown a drone before so it was cool to see how a drone worked.…


I initially had a problem with the "\n", but I found that once I changed "get_int" to "get_float" the "\n" problem went away.

CS50 Hello World

Using this first test program I learned how to navigate through different folder and different files, and I learned the basics of how the workspace works. I also learned how to save files and type code into the workspace, and I learned how to make the code run.